Litteraturoversikt
Norsk forening for psykedelisk vitenskap (NFPV) jobber for å fremme og formidle psykedelisk vitenskap i Norge. Etymologisk stammer ordet «psykedelisk» fra gresk «psyche» og «delos», og betyr sinnsmanifesterende, det vil si at underbevisst materiale kommer til overflaten.

Psykedelisk vitenskap omfatter basal- og samfunnsforskning og klinisk forskning på klassiske psykedeliske stoffer og andre stoffer med lignende egenskaper slik som 3,4 metylendioksymetamfetamin (MDMA) og ketamin. Eksempler på klassiske psykedeliske stoffer inkluderer det syntetiske stoffet lysergsyredietylamid (LSD) og de naturlige forekommende psilocybin fra fleinsopp, N,N-dimetyltryptamin (DMT) fra urtedrikken ayahuasca, og meskalin fra peyotekaktus.

Her finner du en oversikt over utvalgt forskning fordelt tematisk på forskjellige psykedeliske stoffer. Listen er ikke fullstendig, og oppdateres jevnlig ettersom ny forskning blir tilgjengelig.
Klassiske psykedeliske stoffer
  • Nichols DE. Psychedelics. 2016
  • Studerus E, Kometer M, Hasler F et al. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies. 2011
  • Carhart-Harris RL, Bolstridge M, Rucker J et al. Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study. 2016
  • Griffiths RR, Johnson MW, Carducci MA et al. Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. 2016
  • Ross S, Bossis A, Guss J et al. Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a randomized controlled trial. 2016
  • Hendricks PS, Thorne CB, Clark CB et al. Classic psychedelic use is associated with reduced psychological distress and suicidality in the United States adult population. 2015
  • Johnson M, Richards W, Griffiths R. Human hallucinogen research: guidelines for safety. 2008
  • Kvam TM, Stewart LH, Andreassen OA. Psykedeliske stoffer i behandling av angst, depresjon og avhengighet. 2018
MDMA
  • Feduccia, A.A., Jerome, L., Mithoefer, A., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Emerson, A., Doblin, R. (2019) Breakthrough for Trauma Treatment: Safety and Efficacy of MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy Compared to Paroxetine and Sertraline.
  • Mithoefer, M.C., Feduccia, A.A., Jerome, L., Mithoefer, A., Wagner, M., Walsh, Z., Hamilton, S., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Emerson, A., Doblin, R. (2019) MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD: study design and rationale for phase 3 trials based on pooled analysis of six phase 2 randomized controlled trials.
  • Ot'alora, G, M., Grigsby, J., Poulter, B., Van Derveer, J. W., Giron, S. G., Jerome, L., Feduccia, A., Hamilton, S., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Emerson, A., Mithoefer, M., Doblin, R. (2018). 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized phase 2 controlled trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology.
  • Mithoefer, M. C., Mithoefer, Mithoefer, A. T., Feduccia, A. A., Jerome, L., Wagner, M., Wymer, J., Holland, J., Hamilton, S., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Emerson, A., Doblin, R. (2018) 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-Assisted Psychotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Military Veterans, Firefighters, and Police Officers: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Dose-Response, Phase 2 Clinical Trial. The Lancet Psychiatry
  • Mithoefer M, Wagner M, Mithoefer A, Jerome L, Martin S, Yazar-Klosinski B, Michel Y, Brewerton T, Doblin R (2013) Durability of improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and absence of harmful effects or drug dependency after 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy: a prospective long-term follow-up study. J Psychopharmacol 27(1): 28-39
  • Oehen P, Traber R, Widmer V, Schnyder U (2013) A randomized, controlled pilot study of MDMA (±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)- assisted psychotherapy for treatment of resistant, chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Journal of Psychopharmacology 27(1): 40–52
  • Mithoefer M, Wagner M, Mithoefer A, Jerome L, Doblin R (2010) The safety and efficacy of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: the first randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Psychopharmacology 25(4): 439–452

Ketamin
  • 1. Domino, Edward F; Chodoff, Peter; Corssen, Guenter; ,"Pharmacologic effects of CI‐581, a new dissociative anesthetic, in man",Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics,6,3,279-291, 1965, Wiley Online Library
  • Berman, Robert M; Cappiello, Angela; Anand, Amit; Oren, Dan A; Heninger, George R; Charney, Dennis S; Krystal, John H; ,Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients,Biological psychiatry,47,4,351-354, 2000, Elsevier
  • Sanacora, Gerard; Frye, Mark A; McDonald, William; Mathew, Sanjay J; Turner, Mason S; Schatzberg, Alan F; Summergrad, Paul; Nemeroff, Charles B; ,A consensus statement on the use of ketamine in the treatment of mood disorders,JAMA psychiatry,74,4,399-405, 2017, American Medical Association
  • Hashimoto, Kenji; ,"Rapid‐acting antidepressant ketamine, its metabolites and other candidates: A historical overview and future perspective",Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences,73,10,613-627, 2019, Wiley Online Library
  • Sanacora, Gerard; Katz, Rachel; ,Ketamine: a review for clinicians,Focus,16,3,243-250,2018,Am Psychiatric Association
  • Krystal, John H; Abdallah, Chadi G; Sanacora, Gerard; Charney, Dennis S; Duman, Ronald S; ,Ketamine: a paradigm shift for depression research and treatment,Neuron,101,5,774-778, 2019, Elsevier
  • Singh, Ilina; Morgan, Celia; Curran, Valerie; Nutt, David; Schlag, Anne; McShane, Rupert; ,Ketamine treatment for depression: opportunities for clinical innovation and ethical foresight,The Lancet Psychiatry,4,5,419-426, 2017, Elsevier
5 methoxy dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)
  • Barsuglia, J., Davis, A. K., Palmer, R., Lancelotta, R., Windham-Herman, A. M., Peterson, K., ... & Griffiths, R. R. (2018). Intensity of mystical experiences occasioned by 5-MeO-DMT and comparison with a prior psilocybin study. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2459.
  • Dakic, V., Nascimento, J. M., Sartore, R. C., de Moraes Maciel, R., de Araujo, D. B., Ribeiro, S., ... & Rehen, S. K. (2017). Short term changes in the proteome of human cerebral organoids induced by 5-MeO-DMT. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1-13.
  • Davis, A. K., Barsuglia, J. P., Lancelotta, R., Grant, R. M., & Renn, E. (2018). The epidemiology of 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) use: benefits, consequences, patterns of use, subjective effects, and reasons for consumption. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(7), 779-792.
  • Davis, A. K., So, S., Lancelotta, R., Barsuglia, J. P., & Griffiths, R. R. (2019). 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) used in a naturalistic group setting is associated with unintended improvements in depression and anxiety. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 45(2), 161-169.
  • Halberstadt, A. L., Nichols, D. E., & Geyer, M. A. (2012). Behavioral effects of α, α, β, β-tetradeutero-5-MeO-DMT in rats: comparison with 5-MeO-DMT administered in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Psychopharmacology, 221(4), 709-718.
  • Jiang, X. L., Shen, H. W., & Yu, A. M. (2015). Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Neuropharmacology, 89, 342-351.
  • Lancelotta, R. L., & Davis, A. K. (2020). Use of benefit enhancement strategies among 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) users: Associations with mystical, challenging, and enduring effects. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 1-9.
  • Ott, J. (2001). Pharmepena-psychonautics: human intranasal, sublingual and oral pharmacology of 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyl-tryptamine. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 33(4), 403-407.
  • Sepeda, N. D., Clifton, J. M., Doyle, L. Y., Lancelotta, R., Griffiths, R. R., & Davis, A. K. (2019). Inhaled 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine: Supportive context associated with positive acute and enduring effects. Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 1-9.
  • Sklerov, J., Levine, B., Moore, K. A., King, T., & Fowler, D. (2005). A fatal intoxication following the ingestion of 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine in an ayahuasca preparation. Journal of analytical toxicology, 29(8), 838-841.
  • Shen, H. W., Wu, C., Jiang, X. L., & Yu, A. M. (2010). Effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitor and cytochrome P450 2D6 status on 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Biochemical pharmacology, 80(1), 122-128.
  • Shen, H. W., Jiang, X. L., & Yu, A. M. (2011). Nonlinear pharmacokinetics of 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine in mice. Drug metabolism and disposition, 39(7), 1227-1234.
  • Szabo, A., Kovacs, A., Frecska, E., & Rajnavolgyi, E. (2014). Psychedelic N, N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine modulate innate and adaptive inflammatory responses through the sigma-1 receptor of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. PloS one, 9(8).
  • Uthaug, M. V., Lancelotta, R., Bernal, A. O., Davis, A. K., & Ramaekers, J. G. (2020). A comparison of reactivation experiences following vaporization and intramuscular injection (IM) of synthetic 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in a naturalistic setting. Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 1(aop), 1-10.
  • Uthaug, M. V., Lancelotta, R., Szabo, A., Davis, A. K., Riba, J., & Ramaekers, J. G. (2020). Prospective examination of synthetic 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine inhalation: effects on salivary IL-6, cortisol levels, affect, and non-judgment. Psychopharmacology, 237(3), 773-785.
  • Uthaug, M. V. The Ethical and Ecological Considerations of Inhaling Bufotoxins from Incilius Alvarius.
  • Uthaug, M. V., Lancelotta, R., van Oorsouw, K., Kuypers, K. P. C., Mason, N., Rak, J., ... & Páleníček, T. (2019). A single inhalation of vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in a naturalistic setting is related to sustained enhancement of satisfaction with life, mindfulness-related capacities, and a decrement of psychopathological symptoms. Psychopharmacology, 236(9), 2653-2666.
Ayahuasca
  • Almeida, R. N., Galvão, A. C. D. M., Da Silva, F. S., Silva, E. A. D. S., Palhano-Fontes, F., Maia-de-Oliveira, J. P., ... & Galvão-Coelho, N. (2019). Modulation of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor by a single dose of ayahuasca: observation from a randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 1234.
  • Bouso, J. C., & Riba, J. (2014). Ayahuasca and the treatment of drug addiction. In The therapeutic use of ayahuasca (pp. 95-109). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • Fábregas, J. M., González, D., Fondevila, S., Cutchet, M., Fernández, X., Barbosa, P. C. R., ... & Bouso, J. C. (2010). Assessment of addiction severity among ritual users of ayahuasca. Drug and alcohol dependence, 111(3), 257-261.
  • dos Santos, R. G., Osório, F. L., Crippa, J. A. S., Riba, J., Zuardi, A. W., & Hallak, J. E. (2016). Antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive effects of ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): a systematic review of clinical trials published in the last 25 years. Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology, 6(3), 193-213.
  • Galvao, A. C. M., Almeida, R. N., dos Santos Silva, E. A., de Morais Freire, F. A., Palhano-Fontes, F., Onias, H., ... & Galvao-Coelho, N. L. (2018). A Single Dose Of Ayahuasca Modulates Salivary Cortisol In Treatment-Resistant Depression. BioRxiv, 257238.
  • Guimarães dos Santos, R. (2013). Safety and side effects of ayahuasca in humans—an overview focusing on developmental toxicology. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 45(1), 68-78.
  • Katz, F., & De Rios, M. D. (1971). Hallucinogenic music: An analysis of the role of whistling in Peruvian ayahuasca healing sessions. The Journal of American Folklore, 84(333), 320-327.
  • McKenna, D. J., Towers, G. N., & Abbott, F. (1984). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American hallucinogenic plants: tryptamine and β-carboline constituents of ayahuasca. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 10(2), 195-223.
  • Osório, F. D. L., Sanches, R. F., Macedo, L. R., Dos Santos, R. G., Maia-de-Oliveira, J. P., Wichert-Ana, L., ... & Hallak, J. E. (2015). Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 37(1), 13-20.
  • Palhano-Fontes, F., Barreto, D., Onias, H., Andrade, K. C., Novaes, M. M., Pessoa, J. A., ... & Tófoli, L. F. (2019). Rapid antidepressant effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca in treatment-resistant depression: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Psychological medicine, 49(4), 655-663.
  • Riba, J., Romero, S., Grasa, E., Mena, E., Carrió, I., & Barbanoj, M. J. (2006). Increased frontal and paralimbic activation following ayahuasca, the pan-Amazonian inebriant. Psychopharmacology, 186(1), 93-98.
  • Riba, J., Valle, M., Urbano, G., Yritia, M., Morte, A., & Barbanoj, M. J. (2003). Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 306(1), 73-83.
  • Riba, J., Anderer, P., Morte, A., Urbano, G., Jané, F., Saletu, B., & Barbanoj, M. J. (2002). Topographic pharmaco‐EEG mapping of the effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 53(6), 613-628.
  • Sanches, R. F., de Lima Osório, F., dos Santos, R. G., Macedo, L. R., Maia-de-Oliveira, J. P., Wichert-Ana, L., ... & Hallak, J. E. (2016). Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a SPECT study. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 36(1), 77-81.
  • Thomas, G., Lucas, P., Capler, N. R., Tupper, K. W., & Martin, G. (2013). Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a preliminary observational study in Canada. Curr Drug Abuse Rev, 6(1), 30-42.
  • Uthaug, M. V., Van Oorsouw, K., Kuypers, K. P. C., Van Boxtel, M., Broers, N. J., Mason, N. L., ... & Ramaekers, J. G. (2018). Sub-acute and long-term effects of ayahuasca on affect and cognitive thinking style and their association with ego dissolution. Psychopharmacology, 235(10), 2979-2989.
  • Winkelman, M. (2005). Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 37(2), 209-218.


DMT
  • Alamia, A., Timmermann, C., VanRullen, R., & Carhart-Harris, R. (2020). DMT alters cortical travelling waves. bioRxiv.
  • Strassman, R. J. (1996). Human psychopharmacology of N, N-dimethyltryptamine. Behavioural brain research, 73(1), 121-124.
  • Strassman, R. J., & Qualls, C. R. (1994). Dose-response study of N, N-dimethyltryptamine in humans: I. Neuroendocrine, autonomic, and cardiovascular effects. Archives of general psychiatry, 51(2), 85-97.
  • Strassman, R. J., Qualls, C. R., Uhlenhuth, E. H., & Kellner, R. (1994). Dose-response study of N, N-dimethyltryptamine in humans: II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale. Archives of general psychiatry, 51(2), 98-108.
  • Timmermann, C., Roseman, L., Schartner, M., Milliere, R., Williams, L., Erritzoe, D., ... & Turton, S. (2019). Neural correlates of the DMT experience as assessed via multivariate EEG. bioRxiv, 706283.
  • Timmermann, Christopher, Leor Roseman, Luke Williams, David Erritzoe, Charlotte Martial, Héléna Cassol, Steven Laureys, David Nutt, and Robin Carhart-Harris. "DMT models the near-death experience." Frontiers in psychology 9 (2018): 1424.
  • Timmermann, C., Roseman, L., Williams, L., Schartner, M., Leech, R., Feilding, A., ... & Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2018). Enter the Void: EEG Correlates of the DMT Experience.


Psilocybin
  • Bogenschutz, M. P., Forcehimes, A. A., Pommy, J. A., Wilcox, C. E., Barbosa, P. C. R., & Strassman, R. J. (2015). Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: a proof-of-concept study. Journal of psychopharmacology, 29(3), 289-299.
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Roseman, L., Bolstridge, M., Demetriou, L., Pannekoek, J. N., Wall, M. B., ... & Leech, R. (2017). Psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression: fMRI-measured brain mechanisms. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1-11.
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Erritzoe, D., Williams, T., Stone, J. M., Reed, L. J., Colasanti, A., ... & Hobden, P. (2012). Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(6), 2138-2143.
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Leech, R., Williams, T. M., Erritzoe, D., Abbasi, N., Bargiotas, T., ... & Wise, R. G. (2012). Implications for psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy: functional magnetic resonance imaging study with psilocybin. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(3), 238-244.
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Bolstridge, M., Rucker, J., Day, C. M., Erritzoe, D., Kaelen, M., ... & Taylor, D. (2016). Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(7), 619-627.
  • Garcia-Romeu, A., R Griffiths, R., & W Johnson, M. (2014). Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction. Current drug abuse reviews, 7(3), 157-164.
  • Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., Johnson, M. W., McCann, U. D., & Jesse, R. (2008). Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. Journal of psychopharmacology, 22(6), 621-632.
  • Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology, 187(3), 268-283.
  • Grob, C. S., Danforth, A. L., Chopra, G. S., Hagerty, M., McKay, C. R., Halberstadt, A. L., & Greer, G. R. (2011). Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer. Archives of general psychiatry, 68(1), 71-78.
  • Johnson, M. W., Garcia-Romeu, A., & Griffiths, R. R. (2017). Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 43(1), 55-60.
  • Mason, N. L., Mischler, E., Uthaug, M. V., & Kuypers, K. P. (2019). Sub-acute effects of psilocybin on empathy, creative thinking, and subjective well-being. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 51(2), 123-134.
  • Moreno, F. A., Wiegand, C. B., Taitano, E. K., & Delgado, P. L. (2006). Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of psilocybin in 9 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(11), 1735-1740
  • Tylš, F., Páleníček, T., & Horáček, J. (2014). Psilocybin–summary of knowledge and new perspectives. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(3), 342-356.


LSD
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Muthukumaraswamy, S., Roseman, L., Kaelen, M., Droog, W., Murphy, K., ... & Leech, R. (2016). Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(17), 4853-4858.
  • Carhart-Harris, R. L., Kaelen, M., Whalley, M. G., Bolstridge, M., Feilding, A., & Nutt, D. J. (2015). LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 232(4), 785-794.
  • Kaelen, M., Barrett, F. S., Roseman, L., Lorenz, R., Family, N., Bolstridge, M., ... & Carhart-Harris, R. L. (2015). LSD enhances the emotional response to music. Psychopharmacology, 232(19), 3607-3614.
  • Lebedev, A. V., Kaelen, M., Lövdén, M., Nilsson, J., Feilding, A., Nutt, D. J., & Carhart‐Harris, R. L. (2016). LSD‐induced entropic brain activity predicts subsequent personality change. Human brain mapping, 37(9), 3203-3213.
  • Liechti, M. E. (2017). Modern clinical research on LSD. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(11), 2114-2127.
  • Terhune, D. B., Luke, D. P., Kaelen, M., Bolstridge, M., Feilding, A., Nutt, D., ... & Ward, J. (2016). A placebo-controlled investigation of synaesthesia-like experiences under LSD. Neuropsychologia, 88, 28-34.


Mescaline
  • Albaugh, B. J., & Anderson, P. O. (1974). Peyote in the treatment of alcoholism among American Indians. American journal of Psychiatry, 131(11), 1247-1250.
  • CATTELL, J. P. (1954). The influence of mescaline on psychodynamic material. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 119(3), 233-244.
  • Dasgupta, A. (2019). Abuse of Magic Mushroom, Peyote Cactus, LSD, Khat, and Volatiles. In Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing (pp. 477-494). Academic Press.
  • Denber, H. C., & Merlis, S. (1954). A note on some therapeutic implications of the mescaline-induced state. The psychiatric quarterly, 28(1-4), 635-640.
  • Dobkin, M. (1968). Trichocereus pachanoi: a mescaline cactus used in folk healing in Peru. Economic Botany, 22(2), 191-194.
  • Frederking, W. (1955). Intoxicant drugs (mescaline and lysergic acid diethylamide) in psychotherapy. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 121(3), 262-266.
  • Jay, M. (2019). Mescaline: a global history of the first psychedelic. Yale University Press.
  • Kapadia, G. J., & Fayez, M. B. E. (1970). Peyote constituents: chemistry, biogenesis, and biological effects. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 59(12), 1699-1727.
  • Ogunbodede, O., McCombs, D., Trout, K., Daley, P., & Terry, M. (2010). New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp.(Cactaceae)("San Pedro") and their relevance to shamanic practice. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 131(2), 356-362.
  • Patel, A. R. (1968). Mescaline and related compounds. In Fortschritte der Arzneimittelforschung/Progress in Drug Research/Progrès des recherches pharmaceutiques (pp. 11-47). Birkhäuser Basel.
  • Schultes, R. E. (1937). Peyote and plants used in the peyote ceremony. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, 4(8), 129-152.
  • Smythies, J. R., Bradley, R. J., Johnston, V. S., & Leonard, F. (1967). The behavioural effects of some derivatives of mescaline and N, N-dimethyltryptamine in the rat. Life sciences, 6(17), 1887-1893.
  • Smythies, J. R., & Sykes, E. A. (1965). Structure-activity relationship studies on mescaline: The effect of dimethoxyphenylethylamine and N: N-dimethyl mescaline on the conditioned avoidance response in the rat. Psychopharmacologia, 8(5), 324-330.
  • Smythies, J. R. (1953). The mescaline phenomena. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 3(12), 339-347.


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